Steps to reading Critically and Actively :
1)Develop an attitude of critical consciousness (be active, engage w/text, ask ?): Don’t be passive, uncritical),
2)Read Attentively: Don’t let mind wonder,
3)Paraphrase: Take mental/ Actual Notes
,4) Ask Questions:,
5)Control Your bias (5 Steps)
Active Reader: Read Biographical notes about author, Focus on the title of the work, what is date of publication?, Does the author use quotation marks to “signal” words?, Purpose of Italics words? Meaning to be a critical Reader:
Annotating: Mark your text by making content notes, symbol, Question the text—to clearly understand and comprehend what you are reading (What is the Thesis or main point)
Psychologist Selectivity: when we perceive what we want to perceive.
Cultural Selectivity: From a cultural perspective, we are conditioned by our culture’s code of values and modes of understanding.
Purpose of Writing: to inform, explain. Paraphrasing: taking what you have read and putting it in your own words, not following the order.
Summarizing: faithful to the structure and meaning of the original essay, follow the original and in own words.
Quoting: Direct quotes often have a unique power b/c they capture the essence of an idea accurately and briefly. Plagiarism: Steal somebody else ideas, thought, work, HERR’s policy: “F” on paper, Fail course.
Synthesis: Drawing connection from two or more written or not text based sources. Explanatory Synthesis: purpose is to convey information using the tools of summary, paraphrase and quotation to emphasize those aspects of certain text that you find useful in constructing your own essay.
Argumentative Synthesis: Draw material from readings to support a claim of you won and stake out a position on the material s at hand.
Writing Process: Prewriting: a stage in which you discover a reason to write, select and narrow a subject, need a purpose or why.
Main Forms of Writing:
1) Narration: to relate a sequence of events(purpose), to tell about an accident(example),
2) Description: to provide a picture of produce an impression(P) to describe a moth(E),
3) Exposition: to explain ,inform or analyze(P), to compare two teachers(E),
4)Argumentation: to convince or persuade(P), to be prolife(E). Forms of Prewriting: Free writing Brainstorming and outline. Drafting: Develop a thesis(Main PT) Writing introductory paragraphs: a good introduction entices reader into a world by arousing the their curiosity about the topic and thesis, Purpose is to introduce the topic. Use a Epigraph (Quote), cite a statistic or correct a false assumption.
9 Strategies for Developing paragraphs:
1) Description: This is often your best tool for explain your observations about objects, people scenes and events.
2)Narration: Telling stories or narrations, is a basic pattern of organize your thoughts.
3)Illustration: Different topics lead to different types of examples or supporting evidence, but her e are some ideas. Facts, case study.
4) Process Analysis: When you describe how something works, how something is assembled, how something is done, or how something happens.
5) Compare/Contrast: serves three useful purposes in writing and limit your compare/contrast to only two subjects.
6) Casual Analysis: Think cause and effect. It requires critical thinking skills w/attention to logic and thorough preparation for a solid paper.
7) Definition: Lexical (dictionary Def), extended def. (explanation that might involve a paragraph or entire essay), and Stipulative (offer a special def of term or set limitations on your use of the terms.
8) Classification: a mode of critical thinking and writing based on the division of a concept into groups an d subgroups, and the examination of important elements within these groups.
9) Argumentation: a form of critical thinking in which you try to convince an audience to accept your position on a topic or persuade members an audience to act in a certain way. Writing end paragraphs: use a full circle pattern by echoing or repeating a phrase, idea or detail that you presented in intro.Suggest a solution.
“Sex, Lies and Conversation” Author: Deborah Tannen: Ph d in linguistics Thesis: The thesis is that Men and women misunderstand each other that cause problems in their relationship.