Category : Professions

Titration of an Unknown Acid

Introduction: In this lab, the identity of an unknown acid was determined through the laboratory process titration. By continuously adding a strong base, sodium hydroxide (NaOH), to a solution of unknown acid and plotting the gathered data, the dissociation constant (pKa) of the unknown acid could be determined. The purpose of the lab was to strengthen our understanding of the basic properties of acids and bases by observing how acid-base reactions affect the distribution of elements of water at equilibrium. […]

Oxidation of Organic Compounds

Introduction A common area of focus in the drinking water and wastewater is the formation of disinfection by products (DBP’s). DBP’s are formed from the oxidation of natural organic matter. Common DBP’s such as trihalomethane, haloacetic acid, and chlorite are all known to be carcinogenic. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is a common detection method for the formation of DBP’s. In this experiment, hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and chloramines (NH2Cl) oxidize phenol and resorcinol into DBP’s.  By monitoring the concentrations of […]

Winkler Titration – Boulder Wastewater

Introduction Oxygen is measured in its dissolved form as dissolved oxygen (DO). Stream systems both produce and consume oxygen. Wastewater from sewage treatment plants such as Boulders often contains organic materials that are decomposed by microorganisms, which use oxygen in the process. If more oxygen is consumed than is produced, dissolved oxygen levels decline and some sensitive animals may move away, weaken, or die. In this lab we took samples from 4 locations. These locations were Boulder Creek upstream, Wastewater […]


Forward The following is a report fulfilling an Independent Study, CVEN 4849-929 (1), taken place under the supervision of and approved by Professor JoAnn Silverstein and the Department of Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering. The study focuses on analyzing existing legal framework for graywater recycling, proposing suggestions to Colorado House Bill 13-1044, and the next steps in instituting graywater in the state of Colorado. Abstract Graywater recycling is a known, generally accepted, practice that is on the cusp of becoming […]

Sustainable Buildings and Construction

Background Information on Sustainable Buildings and Construction With the population of the world growing, global warming, the world’s frightening dependence on oil, the issue of energy is concerning and some people are easing this concern. One way that people have been trying to help the Earth is by “Green Building.”  This is different from traditional building in that builders are now paying attention to eco-friendly materials, zero-carbon emission buildings, net-zero energy buildings, and “off the grid” buildings. Green building is […]

Compaction Test

Objective Understanding the relationship between water content and dry unit weight in different soils is important for engineers.  Plotting a range of water contents and dry unit weights provides the optimum water content and maximum dry unit weight of the soil. Procedure For this laboratory compaction test, the standard compaction method was used. The standard compaction test uses a standard proctor device to compact three layers with 25 drops per layer.  The soil is compacted in a mold that consists, […]