Category : Natural Sciences

UV radiations and melanin production

UV radiations and melanin production         Humans and chimpanzees had the same ancestor about seven million years ago. The changes occur by the passage of times and each of the species evolved individually the chimpanzees are however less evolved because they lived in their original environment. As our history, can be related so it is observed that commonly chimpanzees have white skin which was covered with hair. So, it can be predicted that human had white skin. The lifestyle of […]

Carbonate Alkalinity Determination

Introduction   Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) is a very pressing environmental issue in today’s society; Colorado is particularly impacted by the presence of AMD. AMD impacts watersheds by lowering the pH and reducing the alkalinity of natural waters.  Using samples collected at the Captain Jack Superfund Site (an AMD site where the Big Five Tunnel drains into Left Hand Creek) we measured the alkalinity in the drainage from the Big Five Tunnel as well as above and below the confluence […]

Periodic Laws: Newlands (Chemical Society Report) and Mendeleev

Chemical Society Proceedings. Report on Newland’s Law of Octaves. (1866) …Mr. JOHN A. R. NEWLANDS read a paper entitled  The Law of Octaves, and the Causes of Numerical Relations among the Atomic Weights.  The author claims the discovery of a law according to which the elements analogous in their properties exhibit peculiar relationships, similar to those subsisting in music between a note and its octave. Starting from the atomic weights on Cannizzaro’s system, the author arranges the known elements in […]

Water Treatment Design

Problem Statement Design a drinking water treatment plant to treat 40 million gallons per day. The design includes one conventional surface water treatment plant that complies with current regulations, and two alternative treatment plants that comply with future regulations. The treatment plant is designed to treat water with the characteristics shown in Table 1. A jar test was performed on the raw water, with the results shown in Table 2. For TOC removal, the jar test data was not used […]

Steno, Hooke, and Burnet

Nicolaus Steno. The Prodromus.[1] Let us consider Glossopetrae Melitenses [literally, “tongue-stones of Malta”]. Were these once the teeth of sharks? …And were other such bodies—similar to marine bodies, and found far from the sea—once produced in the sea? Many other bodies [that bear such resemblances to living things] are also found among the rocks. If one should say that [tongue-stones] were produced by the earth, or by the force of a particular location, one must confess that all the rest […]

Charles Lyell and Charles Darwin Selections

Charles Lyell (1797–1875), The Progress of Geology …Let us imagine, that [those who explored the antiquities of Egypt in the 19th century], had…a firm belief that the banks of the Nile were never peopled by the human race before [their time], and that their faith in this dogma was as difficult to shake as the opinion of our ancestors, that the earth was never the abode of living beings until the creation of the present continents, and of the species now […]