Category : Chemisty

Recrystallization and Identification of Unknown

Abstract: In this lab an unknown, contaminated organic compound, “E”, was given to be purified and identified. The compound was identified to be N-Phenysuccinimide, because it had a melting range of 154.3-155.5 degrees Celsius. When the purified compound was mixed with known N-Phenylsuccinimide, the melting range was not depressed at all confirming the results. An appropriate solvent was found among water, acetone, ethanol and toluene by doing small-scale solubility tests. To purify the N-Phenylsuccinimide, it was dissolved in hot ethanol, […]

Wittig Synthesis of Alkenes

Purpose: To synthesize E,E-1,4-diphenyl-1,3-butadiene via Wittig reaction (Wittig Synthesis) using Benzyl triphenylphosphonium chloride and cinnamaldehyde in sodium methoxide. Reaction Equation(s):2     Procedure:2   A suspension of anhydrous methanol (1.0 mL), benzyl triphenylphosphonium chloride (0.7508 g, 1.9308 mmol), cinnamaldehyde (0.2415 g, 1.8273 mmol, 0.23 mL) and sodium methoxide (2.4 mL, 4.8 mmol, 2M) was stirred at 21˚C for 30 min. The crude product was isolated via semi-microscale vacuum filtration for 15 min. and rinsed with cold methanol and water. The […]

Caffeine Isolation from Tea Bags

Abstract: The purpose of this experiment was to determine the yield, percent recovery and melting point of caffeine isolated from tea bag. During the experiment, a tea bag was heated in boiling water for about 15 minutes. The resulting mixture was collected for the extraction of caffeine. Caffeine isolation was accomplished from the mixture using methylene chloride. This is because caffeine is more soluble in methylene chloride than in water. Sodium carbonate was also added to the mixture. This was […]

Raman Spectroscopy of Benzene

Abstract Introduction: In Raman Spectroscopy is a powerful technique to analyze different compounds and has a variety of applications. The theory behind this is derived from the Raman Effect (1) The Raman effect refers to the scattering of light after it interacts with a molecule. When a molecule interacts with light, there is a change in the intensity of the light between the incoming and outgoing intensities. This can be described via the Beer Lambert law in equation 1. (2) […]

Acid-Base Titrations: Standardization of NaOH and Antacid Analysis

Acid- Base Titrations By Julia Trimble   Introduction: A titration is a procedure in which two solutions are introduced to form a reaction that once completed, reaches an identifiable endpoint (Murphy, 2012, p.305).  During a titration, the volume of one reagent, the analyte, is predetermined while the other reagent, the titrant, is prepared in a buret and slowly introduced to the analyte solution.  The completion of this reaction can be determined via observation through the use of an indicator.  The […]

Adapting to Adaptations: A Look at the Relationship between Book and Film

When talking about adaptations, a common thing one might hear is “That’s not how it happened in the book!” But surely there is more to adaptations than simply loyalty between film and book. One must delve deeper to understand the relationship between books and films when an adaptation is made. There is bound to be discussion (when examining adaptations) of what novels can do that film can’t and vice versa. Novels are verbal and use words to tell a story, […]