Category : Natural Sciences


Analytical Techniques for Analysis of Heavy Metals By: Mohammad Ali Salik Mohammad Ali Salik AIM: The aim of this case study is to choose a suitable instrumental analytical technique to investigate the concentration of heavy metals in sludges collected from contaminated water courses. When choosing the analytical technique, a lot of factors needs to be looked at such as cost, sensitivity ( level of detection), physical state of matrix and availability of instrumentation. INTRODUCTION: Heavy metals refer to any metallic chemical […]

Thermodynamics and Equilibrium Experiment

Thermodynamics and Equilibrium By: Omish Samaroo   Introduction The goal of this experiment is to determine the value of an equilibrium constant at different temperatures and use these data to calculate the enthalpy and entropy of reaction. The value of an equilibrium constant for a reaction varies, depending on the temperature. In endothermic reactions, the value of K increases as the temperature increases because heat can be thought of as a reactant. In exothermic reactions, and the value of K decreases […]

Synthesis of & Reversing O2 Addition on Vaska’s Complex

Synthesis of & Reversing O2 Addition on Vaska’s Complex By Ellie J. Miller Abstract: This lab illustrates the synthesis of Vaska’s complex. It then shows the reversible process of binding oxygen gas (O2) to Vaska’s complex through IR spectroscopy. Oxygen gas can be bound to the complex via oxidative addition but through the reverse process it can be stripped from the complex by purging the system with nitrogen gas as detailed in this report. Introduction: Vaska’s complex (trans-IrCl(CO)(PPH3)2) has an […]

Synthesis and Kinetics Studies of Wilkinson’s Catalyst

Synthesis and Kinetics Studies of Wilkinson’s Catalyst By:  Nicole Alexander Abstract Wilkinson’s catalyst is used in the hydrogenation of cyclohexene.  Wilkinson’s catalyst was synthesized with a percent yield of 84.8%.  Next this compound was characterized and the kinetics was measured.  The original catalyst and the synthesized hydrido, the yield of which was 73.06%, were characterized via IR spectroscopy and the H2 peaks were clearly distinct at around 2000 cm-1.  A catalytic hydrogenation was performed resulting in 95.195% cyclohexane product.  Lastly […]

Determination of Copper and Lead in Brass

Determination of Cu and Pb in Brass By:  T.A. Alicia Smith Introduction             In this experiment, four different methods were used in determining the concentration of copper and lead presence in the unknown brass sample #10. Methods of High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and atomic absorbance spectroscopy were used to measure both copper and lead concentration in the unknown brass while the Gravimetric analysis was used solely to determine the lead concentration. The anodic stripping voltammetric method was also used to […]

Physarum polycephalum Experiment

Introduction Slime molds are one of the most complex and distinct protists that were once considered to be fungi because of their sporophytic reproduction (Wimpee et al. 2013). Slime molds are considered to be a bridging species between the Metazoa and Metaphyta (Sussman 1956). Slime molds are a phagotrophic species, meaning they consume the nutrients they need to grow by engulfing it. Bacteria is a primary food source for most slime molds, and more specifically the plasmodial slime mold which […]